II (/977), p. 153—160 EDITORIAL REVIEW Renal energy metabolism and regulation of sodium reabsorption A relationship between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and tubular reabsorption during acute changes in GFR has been recognized since adequate methods for estimation of GFR became available . Kidney International, Vol. In addition, the specifics of how sodium is regulated depend on the simultaneous regulation of other substances. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) produced in the heart and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesised in the kidneys facilitate renal excretion of sodium and water, and thus oppose the actions of angiotensin II, aldosterone, arginine vasopressin (AVP), endothelin, and the renal sympathetic nerves. The renal regulation of sodium transport. Blood is filtered at the glomerulus. As an example of this redundancy, neural input plays a significant role in regulating sodium transport, yet denervation of the kidneys or renal transplant does not abolish the ability of the kidneys to regulate sodium excretion. Regulation of Blood Volume by Renal Excretion of Water and Sodium. Purpose of review: The serum and glucocorticoid regulated kinase (SGK) family of protein kinases shares similar biochemical and hormonal signaling properties; however, the SGK kinases also exhibit distinct differences in regulating renal sodium (Na(+)) transport. The following paragraphs briefly describe how renal excretion of water and sodium are regulated and how blood volume affects cardiovascular function. This filtrate contains sodium, water and other substances. Renal Regulation of Sodium Excretion: Function in Health and in Edema-Forming States. This article has no abstract; the first 100 words appear below. The cell sodium concentration is about 15 mmol/l, but it varies in different organs; it has an intracellular volume of 30 liters and about 400 mmol are inside the cell. Seemingly every hormone, cytokine, sympathetic transmitter, and paracrine agent exerts an influence somewhere in the kidney. Renal Regulation of Sodium Balance. In the p … St. Louis. Regulation of acid-base homeostasis and blood pH, a function shared with the respiratory system. Howard S. Frazier, M.D. Low … Given this complexity it might seem impossible to present a meaningful description of how sodium and water excretion are regulated. 1961 Oct; 21:249–258. Sodium Regulation. Author Affiliations. The potential contribution to regulation of urinary sodium excretion through an endocrine axis using enteric uroguanylin for the fine-tuning of sodium reabsorption by renal tubules coupled with local actions of uroguanylin and/or guanylin on the intestinal epithelium to stimulate salt excretion by the GI system makes physiological sense. Sodium is an important cation that is distributed primarily outside the cell. Saulo Klahr, MD; Eduardo Slatopolsky, MD. Lewy JE, Windhager EE. Sodium and water excretion are regulated by an array of control systems. For example, water follows ions via an osmotic gradient, so mechanisms that alter sodium levels or sodium retention in the renal system will alter water retention levels as well. ... Studies on the efferent mechanism of the sodium diuresis which follows the administration of intravenous saline in the dog. Renal regulation of sodium balance. Peritubular control of proximal tubular fluid reabsorption in the rat kidney. From the Renal Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis. Clin Sci. Extracellular fluid volume is directly dependent on body sodium content ; Adequacy of body sodium content is perceived as the fullness of the circulating blood volume (effective circulating volume) 12 Sensors for control of sodium balance.
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