“U.S.-led airstrikes on ISIS in Syria: What you need to know.” CNN, September 24. Sociologists have a distinctive approach to studying governmental power and authority that differs from the perspective of political scientists. We are generally aware of what authority figures have power to request, and are also aware when authority figures overstep their position. ADVERTISEMENTS: The various advantages of Centralisation of Authority are : 1. Some leaders, like Mohandas Gandhi for instance, can be considered charismatic and legal-rational authority figures. Further, they are enforced by a government that monopolizes their enactment and the legitimate use of physical force. (Photo courtesy of U.S. National Archives and Records Administration). In this type of authority, a ruler typically has no real force to carry out their will, and their position depends primarily on a group’s respect. For centuries, philosophers, politicians, and social scientists have explored and commented on the nature of power. No system of rule could survive long without exercising some measure of authority. In the Arab Spring uprisings, for example, Twitter feeds and other social media helped protesters coordinate their movements, share ideas, and bolster morale, as well as gain global support for their causes. People adhere to traditional authority because they are invested in the past and feel obligated to perpetuate it. Why do people accept traditional authority figures even though these types of leaders have limited means of enforcing their power? CNN, October 2, 2014. Charismatic leaders tend to hold power for short periods of time, and according to Weber, they are just as likely to be tyrannical as they are heroic. Despite the differences between government systems in the Middle East and the United States, their governments play the same fundamental role: in some fashion, they exert control over the people they govern. Young people and students were among the most ardent supporters of democratic reform in the recent Arab Spring. Such a driver most likely assumes that the police officer behind him serves as a legitimate source of authority and has the right to pull him over. Efforts by the U.S. government to wield power in other countries have included joining with other nations to form the Allied forces during World War II, entering Iraq in 2002 to topple Saddam Hussein’s regime, and imposing sanctions on the government of North Korea in the hopes of constraining its development of nuclear weapons. They relied on a variety of nonviolent protest strategies such as rallies, sit-ins, marches, petitions, and boycotts. Some consider ISIS a direct and growing threat to the United States if left unchecked. 3. Based on this work, Weber developed a classification system for authority. Of course, ideals are seldom replicated in the real world. legal order: A system where the rules are enacted and obeyed as legitimate because they are in line with other laws on how they can be enacted and how they should be obeyed. Charismatic leaders are among the most fascinating figures in history. France and the United Kingdom, members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and Belgium are seeking government approval through their respective parliaments to participate in airstrikes. The other employees also feel less uncertainty in the organization when some of them possess expert & referent powers. In the Arab Spring uprisings, for example, Twitter feeds and other social media helped protesters coordinate their movements, share ideas, and bolster morale, as well as gain global support for their causes. Not all authority figures are police officers, elected officials or government authorities. Modern technology has made such forms of nonviolent reform easier to implement. Sociologists have a distinctive approach to studying governmental power and authority that differs from the perspective of political scientists. Many historians consider figures such as Joan of Arc, Margaret Thatcher, and Mother Teresa to be charismatic leaders. 2014. Autocracy is a form of government in which power is controlled by only one ruler or authority. Despite the differences between government systems in the Middle East and the United States, their governments play the same fundamental role: in some fashion, they exert control over the people they govern. Many historians consider figures such as Joan of Arc, Margaret Thatcher, and Mother Teresa to be charismatic leaders. Others believe U.S. intervention unnecessarily worsens the Middle East situation and prefer that resources be used at home rather than increasing military involvement in an area of the world where they believe the United States has intervened long enough. Britain’s Queen Elizabeth, for instance, occupies a position that she inherited based on the traditional rules of succession for the monarchy. Sociologists, however, tend to be more interested in the influences of governmental power on society and in how social conflicts arise from the distribution of power. Because so few women have held dynamic positions of leadership throughout history, the list of charismatic female leaders is comparatively short. Max Weber, one of the key figures in sociology, realized this when he examined individual action as it relates to authority, as well as large-scale structures of authority and how they relate to a society’s economy. They would observe, for example, that the United States’ political system is divided into three distinct branches (legislative, executive, and judicial), and they would explore how public opinion affects political parties, elections, and the political process in general.
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